and Spinning in Manchester and Lancashire
Manchester, and the towns of the region, generated
much of Britain's 19th century wealth, as well as pioneering much of
its technological groundbreaking achievements.
Methods in spinning, weaving and dyeing had become fully mechanised
by the middle of the 19th century, through inventors like Samuel
Crompton, and his spinning Mule, James
Hargreave's Spinning Jenny, Richard
Arkwright, and many other's works of invention.
Steam and water had made power plentiful and still
cheap, coal came from just down the road at Worsley through Lord
Egerton's Bridgewater Canal, the new railways and the Ashton & Rochdale
Canals had made transportation close and convenient.
Mass production methods were gradually introduced and productivity was
at an all-time high. Only the American Civil War interrupted profitability.
Raw Cotton from the Confederate Southern Sates was being blockaded by
the Union North, and this resulted in a major depression in all the
textile trades by the early 1860s - a period known as "the cotton famine".
Nevertheless, many of the mills survived that period, and were in active
and profitable manufacture until well after the Second World War, when
they failed to win orders against cheaper foreign imports. Some of these
mills are with us today. Several are derelict, most are converted to
other commercial or industrial uses, though their tall, now smoke-free,
chimneys still stand proudly, bearing witness to a time when they were
important buildings of trade and commerce.
The Adelphi Mill, Bollington, near Macclesfield,
This mill was commissioned by two Scottish businessmen, James McConnel
and John Kennedy in 1790, and was constructed in 1818 as a spinning
mill. One writer, Alexis de Tocqueville, described Redhill Street Mill
in 1835 as "...a place where some 1500 workers, labouring 69 hours a
week, with an average wage of 11 shillings, and where three-quarters
of the workers are women and children". (See "Working
& Living Conditions"). Eight storeys high, it was the tallest iron
framed building in the world in its day. During the Cotton Famine, the
company had obtained rights to Heilmann's new combing machine, and managed
to tick over during the depression. In 1865 the building was altered
by the new owner, Sir William Fairbairn, to install larger automated
spinning mules. By this time it was the biggest mill in the Manchester
region. Further buildings were added in 1868 and 1912 to cope with the
demand for increased output.
OLD MILL & THE NEW MILL
The so-called Old Mill was built on Henry Street in 1799 for
James McConnel & John Kennedy who were textile machinery manufacturers
with interests in weaving. This mill was rebuilt in 1912 and became
known as the Royal Mill. In 1801, with improved profitability after
several lean years McConnel & Kennedy commissioned the building
of the New Mill, completed in 1806. This factory had 8 floors and covered
an area of 650 square yards. Gas lighting was installed in 1809 by Boulton
& Watt. By 1811, with a downturn in trade, like many others, the
firm of McConnel & Kennedy went bankrupt. Later, in better times,
they were to build the Sedgewick Mill.
SEDGEWICK MILL, UNION STREET
In 1815 McConnel & Kennedy purchased land on Union Street
in Ancoats to construct the
new Sedgewick Mill, which was not commissioned till 1819, when it was
designed by James Lowe. Bricks were made from local clays to save money,
and the mill was U-shaped with 8 storeys and a 17 bay front on Redhill
Street. It was completed in 1820, though additions were made in the
1814, Hugh Birley
began the building of a mill complex on Cambridge Street in Chorlton-on-Medlock.
Birley was a local magistrate and one of the commanders of the Manchester
& Salford Yeomanry responsible for the Massacre
at St Peter's Field in 1819.
The mill had six storeys and two basements with 20 loading bays along
Cambridge Street. A further block was added later, in 1845.
This mill was one of the first in Manchester to use cast iron columns
and iron framing, in-filled with brickwork. The mill was driven by a
beam engine made by Boulton & Watt and had gas lighting, supplied
by its own gas storage tanks in the basement. The several mills on Cambridge
Street were interconnected by underground tunnels and rail tracks to
ensure rapid transit through the new factory system.
By the end of the 1830s, Cambridge Street mill had a 600 loom shed and
employed 2,000 people in spinning and weaving - at that time probably
the largest mill in Manchester. In the 1860s the mill was bought out
by Charles Macintosh & Company to produce rubberised waterproofs,
for which he subsequently became world famous, the word mackintosh
becoming the generic term for waterproof over-garments.
MILLS, MILES PLATTING
The Victoria Mills in Varley Street, Miles
Platting, were constructed in 1867 and 1873 for William Holland,
by the Architect George Woodhouse of Bolton. The earlier Georgian Mills
had long since outlived their usefulness, and were soon outgrown in
the face of increased production, and Holland decided to vacate his
former Adelphi Mill in Salford
after severe flooding.
He chose to move to Miles Platting, which was beginning to be developed
by other mill-owners at that time, and planned his huge mill to be built
in two stages, six storeys high, and of two identical buildings joined
by a common engine house. The dominant feature was to be the chimney.
In those days steeplejacks were paid according to the number of bricks
they used, and as a result they ingeniously contrived to cap chimneys
with as much masonry as it could stand. This chimney was no exception
- it is tall octagonal and graceful, its slender shaft falling into
a large drum with arcading.
The mill still worked until 1960, and thereafter remained in a sadly
derelict condition for many years. More recently it has undergone a
renaissance as new apartments and offices for the NHS.
This mill was built in the early 1820s on Bengal Street in Ancoats
in three sections to facilitate 3 different owner/occupants. A further
wing, the Jersey Wing, was added later in 1824. It had a revolutionary
prototype fireproof system of stone flags laid on cast iron beams with
no woodwork at all. The roof was also supported on iron trusses. This
form of "fireproofing" was to catch on, and many subsequent
mills, factories and warehouses were to employ the system.
Built on Great Ancoats Street, it had seven storeys and was in
an L-shaped formation. Initially used in the cotton trade, it later
had several different occupancies and was used for smaller trades. It
was in this mill in 1910 that Verdon
Roe established the AV Roe Company manufacturing aeroplanes.
SOHO FACTORY, MANCHESTER
It was not only textile manufacture that thrived in Manchester,
but, by the mid-nineteenth century, thanks largely to engineers like
William Fairbairn and industrialists
like Joseph Whitworth that
the city became a manufacturer and supplier of mill machinery, spindles
and other goods to the surrounding towns to fuel their burgeoning textiles
industries. The Soho Factory had many specialist manufactures within
its 100 yard frontage, including machinery makers, spindle makers and
calico printing machinery makers. They also supplied goods and parts
for the dyeing, bleaching and growing local chemical industries.
MILL, BRADFORD ROAD
Built in Bradford Road alongside the Ashton
Canal, this 1840 building was designed by David Bellhouse. Its seven
storeys had 35 loading bays facing directly onto the canal as well as
front warehousing facilities. The Brunswick Mill was one of the largest
in Britain at that time and by the 1850s held some 276 carding machines,
and 77,000 mule spindles.
MILL, CHESTER STREET, CHORLTON ON MEDLOCK
Built 1820 with an adjoining 1823 built warehouse at right angles. The
mill has wooden floors (not fireproof) but the warehouse has iron columns.
This one has not yet been converted for modern apartment living. There
is a truncated chimney at the back. (Little more known).
MILLS, CHORLTON ON MEDLOCK
The Chorlton New Mills were located in what became known as "Little
Ireland" in Chorlton on Medlock, most of which is now overbuilt
by buildings of Manchester Metropolitan University. The Mills are made
up of three multi-storey mills built in stages in 1813, 1818 and 1845.
They were built for the Birley family. The complex included mills and
associated engine house and a basement level gas works. The steel strapped
chimney was built in 1853. Hugh
Hornby Birley, the principal figure in the founding of the Chorlton
Mills came to "fame" as the captain at the head of the Yeomanry
who charged the crowd in the Peterloo Massacre
of 1819. The mill buildings are now converted into apartments.